20 Dec 2017

Best tasting, complete protein vegan tomato soup recipe

    Did you know that tomato soup is one of the top three most popular soup flavours in Canada according Euromonitor International1? For consumers, soups have the ability to elicit an emotional response.  A steamy bowl of soup on a cold winter day warms both body and soul.  These memorable moments and feelings coupled with a healthy recipe have proven to be real winners for soup manufacturers.  Below is what we believe to be the best-tasting, complete protein (vegan) tomato soup recipe made with Profi the complete, high protein, plant-based composite (HPPC).

    Preparation Instructions:

    1. Measure all ingredients.
    2. In a bowl, stir together spices and gums. Then, mix in the water.
    3. In another bowl, blend tomato paste and spice mixture until smooth and homogeneous.
    4. In small bowl, mix oil with Profi Pro until the mixture is homogeneous. Mix into the tomato paste mixture.
    5. In a food processor, blend soup for 3 minutes.
    6. Fill canning jar with tomato soup concentrate and cook in a pressure cooker at 15 psi for 5 minutes.
    7. To serve, empty soup concentrate into pot. Stirring constantly, slowly add an equal quantity of water to the concentrate. Heat to 75 degrees C (hot but not boiling), while stirring often.

    Profi Pro Contributes:

    5.0 g of Complete Protein per 125 g serving (or 250 g serving as fully prepared)

    1Tomato is the third most popular soup after chicken noodle and cream of mushroom soup in Canada. Source:  “Stock: options Canadians are choosing healthier soups made with wholesome, locally sourced ingredients”(Page 24 of Nov/Dec 2017 issue) article from Food in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.foodincanada.com/digital-edition/?documentID=171206213054-f6de3cea9aa44c3fb23f53c81ba57042

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    05 Oct 2017

    How to manufacture a healthier, better tasting burger, while saving money

      Product development often results in trade-offs.  One might have to focus on taste while enduring an increase in costs. Alternatively, improving the nutritionals might mean sacrificing on taste.  There are very few instances when adding a single ingredient will help create a healthier product, while lowering costs, and improving taste.  Natralein pea protein is one such ingredient for food manufacturers creating meat products.

      The first benefit of using Natralein pea protein in a meat product is cost reduction.  Compared to lean ground beef, Natralein is 4.3 times less expensive on a per gram basis.

      Size and cost are usually highly correlated.  However, Natralein, which is less expensive than ground beef, when added to a hamburger can provide more weight and in turn provide more value to both the consumer and the manufacturer.  Hamburgers containing 5% Natralein pea protein (NPP) were 1.18 times heavier because they retained more moisture after cooking than those with no NPP.

      Table showing weight no NPP vs NPP & steak spiceAlong with lower costs and higher weight, Natralein pea protein helps reduce the amount of saturated/trans fat and increase the amount of protein. Using Natralein pea protein along with store-bought steak spice (for added flavour), clearly illustrates an improved nutritional declaration for the hamburger:Nutritional Facts Tables ground meat burger vs natralein & steak spice burger

      Adding Natralein pea protein to a hamburger can provide better volume, improved nutritionals, and better taste all at a lower cost.  Dealers Ingredients has developed a ready-to-use hamburger recipe using Natralein pea protein and Butter Buds dried beer extract that can be downloaded here.


      Interested in learning how Natralein Pea Protein can help you create healthier meat based products and save money; how to incorporate Profi, award-winning complete plant-based protein or learning more about how Butter Buds can improve the flavour of your meat based product concepts? Please contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant and request a customized ingredient education presentation/product concept demo and samples or contact us at 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com

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      05 Oct 2017

      Create healthier products and save $$ with Butter Buds functional dairy ingredients

        Did you know that Butter Buds functional dairy ingredients are so versatile that not only can you create healthier products but you can also save money too?

        Helping to create healthier products

        Butter Buds provides a variety of functional benefits to help you create the healthier products that today’s consumers are demanding. Below, are just a few key points that make Butter Buds so effective:

        • Flavour enhancement:
          • Up to 80 times the concentration level for rich butter flavours
          • Up to 40 times the concentration level for Wisconsin cheese flavours
        • Improved mouthfeel while adding the perception of richness which is not possible with traditional flavours
        • Reduced saturated fat & cholesterol in product ingredient (label) table
        • Functional organic dairy ingredients made with certified-organic milk available
        • Non-dairy specialty products including non-dairy, bacon and dried beer extract flavours available
        • Powder format makes it easy to handle and store
        • Kosher and Halal certified

        What this means to you

        You can now offer the same great taste of buttery, dairy or cheese flavours within products that your customers want and expect when incorporating traditional butter, dairy or cheese flavours but with less calories, saturated fat and cholesterol.


        Helping to save money

        Did you know that Butter Buds can save you money as well?

        Butter Buds can provide cost effective solution due to the low usage rate of 1-3% per total batch weight on most products while still achieving the same buttery or dairy or cheese flavour as traditional butter, dairy or cheese.

        Example demonstrating “how much” money can be saved

        Let’s demonstrate “how much” money can be saved with a comparison between Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan vs real parmesan cheese

        Step 1: Cost of parmesan cheese

        Based on batch size of 100 kg (for simplicity)

        On average, parmesan uses 10% of batch weight

        Cost of parmesan cheese is $10.29 per kilo

        Parmesan cheese contributes to 1,000 kg batch:

        10 x $10.29/kilo=$129.90 (at 10% level)

        Step 2: Cost of Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan

        Based on batch size of 100 kg (for simplicity)

        On average, 1.0 kg Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan equivalent of 10 kg parmesan cheese

        Cost of Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan is $21.57 per kilo

        Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan contributes to 1,000 kg batch:

        1 x $21.57=$29.57 (at 10% level)

        Conclusion/Savings on 100 kg batch weight:

        Cost of Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan less parmesan cheese=savings on 100 kg by using Butter Buds cheese buds parmesan instead

        At 10% level:

        $29.57 – $129.90 = -$ 100.33 represents total savings


        Interested in learning how Butter Buds can help you create healthier products and save money? Please contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant and request a customized dairy flavour ingredient education presentation/demo/sample or contact us at 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com

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        05 Oct 2017

        Healthier, better tasting burger recipe with Natralein Pea Protein and Butter Buds

          Adding Natralein™ pea protein to a hamburger can provide better volume, improved nutritionals, and better taste all at a lower cost. Here is an example of a ready-to-use recipe using Natralein pea protein and Butter Buds dried beer extract.

          Preparation Instructions:Ingredient burger recipe table

          1. Add all dry ingredients to a stand mixer and blend on low speed about 1 minute until homogeneous.
          2. Add the dry ingredients to the ground beef, water and oil and blend until all of the dry ingredients are evenly incorporated.
          3. Form the mixture into 45 g balls. Press the balls to form 1/4 inch high round discs of about 2 inch diameter.
          4. Wrap the discs in individual parchment papers, put them into freezer bags and place them into the freezer for storage.
          5. To cook, remove the burgers from the freezer bag and remove the parchment papers and place a sheet of parchment paper on a paper tray.
          6. Bake from frozen at 400 F for 7 minutes. Flip and bake for another 7 minutes to reach an internal temperature of >160 F.

          Makes about 4 x 35 g mini burgers.

          Burger recipe nutritional ingredient table R1Natralein Pea Protein contributes:

          5.8 g of protein.











          Interested in learning how Natralein pea protein can help you create healthier meat based products and save money; how to incorporate Profi, award-winning complete plant-based protein or learning more about how Butter Buds can improve the flavour of your meat based product concepts? Please contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant and request a customized ingredient education presentation/product concept demo and samples or contact us at 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com.

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          28 Aug 2017

          Is plant-based protein as nutritious as animal protein?

            The key difference between animal and plant-based protein is in their amino acid profiles. Animal protein is a complete protein. The reason this is important is because animal protein offers all nine essential amino acids that our bodies require but cannot create on their own. While plant-based proteins are not in themselves complete, consuming a variety of plant-based proteins or a product containing the ingredient Profi, a complete high protein plant-based composite (HPPC) then, this is no longer of concern.

            There are also many benefits for using and consuming a diet consisting of complete plant-based versus animal protein. Here are five reasons to consider.

            1. Reduction in cholesterol and saturated fat intake. Heart disease is the second leading cause of death in Canada. Although, there are many different factors that contribute to heart disease, the good news is that high LDL cholesterol levels is one of the most common and controllable risk factors. Although, all animal products contain both cholesterol and saturated fats, plant-based proteins do not contain either one.
            2. Easier to digest. Meat protein when compared to many other foods such as plant-based proteins can be more difficult to digest. As meat protein consists of protein-dense animal muscle when compared to plant-based proteins, requires more chewing, more acid secretion by the stomach’s parietal cells, and more active enzyme secretion by the pancreas.
            3. Increase fiber intake. As adult men and women should aim for 38 grams and 25 grams respectively of total fiber daily, it can be difficult to achieve. Unlike animal proteins which don’t contain fiber, fiber can be found in plant-based foods.
            4. Reduction in fat for equivalent serving of cooked chicken. A half cup of cooked chicken has 5.21 g fat and 131 calories1 compared to one scoop of Profi Chocolate, a complete plant-based chocolate protein powder with 2.5 g fat and 110 calories mixed with one cup of water. Although, a half cup of chicken can provide 19.95 g of protein which is almost the equivalent to one scoop of Profi Chocolate protein shake at 20 g of protein, it also contains more fat per serving than Profi Chocolate protein powder. Therefore, a complete plant-based protein may be an option to consider if looking for a lower fat per serving for equivalent amount of protein.
            5. Reducing residual hormones and antibiotics. Growth hormones are approved in Canada for use in cows used for beef only and antibiotics in a variety of protein sources including beef, dairy cattle, chicken, laying hens, turkey, pork and fish.2 Although, test results showed levels are rarely found above recommended levels2, another option is to consume plant-based proteins instead if there is a concern about the use of hormones or antibiotics.


            If you are looking to work with an ingredient supplier who understands and has the expertise working with plant-based proteins in a variety of applications, please contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant or 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com to enquiry about application support and/or a marketing trends presentation.

            Dealers Ingredients is the creator of award-winning Profi, the complete high-protein plant-based composite (HPPC) is non-GMO, gluten-free, 100% vegan, neutral to mild sweet taste, PDCAAS/PER, Halal and Kosher certified. Dealers Ingredients also has Natralein Pea and Brown Rice Proteins which are high quality, extensively tested single source plant-based proteins available.


            1Source: Fatsecret. Retrieved from https://www.fatsecret.com/calories-nutrition/generic/chicken-breast-ns-as-to-skin-eaten?portionid=4834&portionamount=1.000

            2Source: “Hormones and antibiotics in food production” (2017, Dec 22) EatRight Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.eatrightontario.ca/en/Articles/Farming-Food-production/Hormones-and-antibiotics-in-food-production.aspx

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            28 Aug 2017

            New: Butter Buds 8X with no PHO oil (non partially hydrogenated oil)

              We are pleased to announce the launch of Butter Buds 8X NPHO (non-partially hydrogenated oil), #49450. This product has the traditional flavour and performance that you have come to depend upon when using any Butter Buds  functional dairy flavour ingredient except it contains non PHO oil. Samples of the product will become available shortly.

              As a result of this launch, Butter Buds 8X #49350 is being replaced with Butter Buds 8X NPHO #49450. The last production run for Butter Buds 8X #49350 will occur in the fall 2017.

              To be one of the first to receive a sample or copy of spec sheet or to discuss further how to manage the transition from Butter Buds 8X #49350 with PHO oil to Butter Buds 8X NPHO #49450 with non PHO oil, please contact your Dealers Sales Consultant or 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com.

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              09 Aug 2017

              Healthy snacks for kids

                Increase in snacking occasions

                With all the activities that kids are involved in, it’s no wonder that kids today are snacking as much as they are to give them the food they need quickly, and on the go. “On average Canadian children between the ages of six to 12 are eating 4.2 snacks per day, mostly to fill hunger gaps between breakfast, lunch and dinner.”1 This represents an increase when almost a decade ago (back in 2006) kids’ snacking trended towards three times a day.2

                The increase in childhood snacking should not be a surprise to anyone as it appears to be mirroring the general snacking trends of adult consumers. As snacking now “represents 50% of eating occasions”3 the role snacks play appears to be expanding from not just an occasional treat but mini-meal option, everyday healthy indulgence and as a quick energy boost. In fact, “snacks make up 11% of meal occasions” according to Nielsen.4

                Trending kids snack options

                According to Joel Gregoire, NPD Group, “Age three is the peak age for snacking. The most popular snacks for children overall are yogurt, cookies and snack bars.”  “Moms tend to have a set lunch box of five items which also includes the classic choices of an apple and mini-carrots” as quoted by Logan Chambers, PepsiCo Canada1. However, a quick internet search revealed the existence of many articles offering a variety of alternative snack options for parents in response to the increase in kids’ snacking occasions.

                Influence of millennial moms on snacking and the role kids play in snack buying

                Millennials are not only “shifting their mindset towards snacking for the purpose of healthy, mindful eating”5, but parents and in particular, Millennial moms are “normalizing healthy snacking for the next generation”6. Based on a national study “Millennial moms buy more better-for-you snacks per month than any other generation. For example, 21% of Millennial moms bought three new healthier types of snacks in the past month compared to 14% of Gen X moms.” Millennial moms are also having a positive impact on the choices their kids are making with “the majority (69%) saying their kids understand that some snacks are healthier than others and 55% are saying their kids are more likely to choose a better-for-you snack over another packaged snack.”5

                With “eight in 10 schools that are peanut and nut free zones”, parents continue to look for alternative, peanut-free ways to add protein to their kids’ lunches and snacks. Although granola bars are a good option for parents to consider, parents are also looking for “all-in-one bar options that are not only peanut-free but include fibre and protein also.”1

                When it comes to teenagers and snacking, “since moms influence on their snacking eating habits is not as great, moms continue to look for convenient solutions” that also include protein options.1

                Parents are willing to pay more for better-for-you snacks

                According to the national study, “parents are willing to pay an average of $1.53 more for better-for-you snack if they know their child will eat it. Even parents making less than $75,000 per year are willing to pay more for healthier snacks as those that make more than $75,000. In addition, 82% of parents, purchased at least one new better-for-you snack in the last month because it seemed healthier and there was a chance their child would eat it.”5


                Better-for-you snacks are highly desirable and valued by both Millennials and their kids who are embracing nutrition as a core value. Not only are Millennial moms willing to purchase several new healthier types of snacks on a monthly basis but they are willing to pay more regardless of income.

                As the purpose of snacks expand from indulgence to mini-meal options; the number of snacking occasions grow and the challenges parents face finding alternative peanut-free protein kid snack options, there appears to be an untapped market opportunity for marketers to develop more kid focused protein-based healthier snack options.


                Interested in receiving a plant-based protein snack trend presentation or application support for any of product development opportunities? Please contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant or 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com to arrange a meeting or to request a sample of Profi, award-winning plant-based high protein plant-based composite (HPPC), Natralein Pea and Brown Rice single-source proteins, Butter Buds dairy flavour ingredients or OneGrain salt replacer.


                1Source: Grainne Burns (Sept 12, 2014) Canadian Grocer-Five trends in kids’ snacking. Retrieved from http://www.canadiangrocer.com/top-stories/five-trends-in-kids-snacking-44439

                2Source: Janet Forgrieve, Freelance Writer, SmartBlogs (Sept. 24, 2014) Foodmanufacturing.com-Brands Cater to Healthier Kids’ Snacking Trends Retrieved from https://www.foodmanufacturing.com/blog/2014/09/brands-cater-healthier-kids-snacking-trends

                3Source: According to Hartman Group as reported by Elaine Watson (Feb. 7, 2017) The FoodNavigator-USA Snacking Innovation Summit: Have you registered yet?  Retrieved from http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/People/Where-next-for-snacks-FoodNavigator-USA-s-Snacking-Innovation-Summit

                4Source: Amanda Baltazar, Contributing Writer, Healthy Snack Trends to Chew On. Retrieved from http://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/issues/2017-01/view_features/healthy-snack-trends-to-chew-on/

                5Source:  Survey results from Amplify Snack Brands and The Centre for Generational Kinetics white paper titled “Better-For-You Snacks: The New Snacking Reality” (April 2017). Retrieved from https://amplifysnackbrands.com/documents/Amplify-2017-Snack-Study.PDF

                6Source: Jeff Fromm (Sept 9, 2015) Snacking Habits of Millennial Parents are Shaping The Category for Future Generations. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jefffromm/2015/09/09/snacking-habits-of-millennial-parents-are-shaping-the-category-for-future-generations/#a51602641834

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                03 Aug 2017

                PROFI™ fruit and nut bar

                  Preparation instructions:

                  1. Add all ingredients to a stand mixer and blend on low speed about 4 minutes until they form a crumbly mixture.Fruit & Nut Bar Ingredient breakdown
                  2. Drop the blend onto a large sheet of parchment paper.
                  3. Fold the sides of the parchment paper over the mixture and press the mixture flat and square with a rolling pin to a thickness of about 0.5 cm.
                  4. Cut the bars to about 2 inches by 5 inches to approximate a weight of 60 g.
                  5. Wrap bars individually with tin foil.

                  Makes 9 bars.

                  Profi Bake Contributes:

                  10.3 g of Complete Protein and 5.1 g of Dietary Fiber per servingFruit & Nut Bar NF Table

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                  19 Jul 2017

                  Trouble Shooting Tips for Formulating Plant-Based Protein Beverages

                    The growing desire of mainstream consumers’ focus on leading a more healthful lifestyle is driving today’s trend for protein beverages.

                    However, formulating protein beverages to take advantage of this trend, can be a bit of a challenge.  Here are eight tips from Dealers Ingredients Product Development team, creators of Profi, the award-winning* plant-based protein, to help get you started when creating your own-plant-based instant beverage mix concepts.

                    • Are you planning to make a protein claim with your plant-based protein beverage? If yes, then, you need to calculate your protein rating which is determined by the PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) x RDI (ie. quantity of protein in a reasonable daily intake). For example, if the protein(s) selected has a protein rating of 20 g or more you can then make a claim of “excellent source of protein” in Canada.


                    • It is important to use some type of thickening agent such as guar gum to provide mouthfeel and to suspend the proteins when mixed in liquids.


                    • In general, there is an expectation that protein powder beverages will taste sweet. Sugar can be used. However, scoop size would be very large and many consumers are not in favour of sugar. To reduce the sugar content, alternative, approved sweeteners are recommended. For example, in Canada sucralose is 600x as sweet as sugar, stevia extract is approx. 200x as sweet and aspartame is 160x as sweet as sugar.


                    • As sweeteners tend to be used in small quantities, it is important to pre-blend them with the other dry ingredients prior to mixing them into the full batch.


                    • Flavours 
                      • If creating a chocolate protein beverage, it is important to test a wide range of chocolate or cocoa powders to obtain the right range of characteristics. Colour, taste and bitterness all have a significant impact on consumer perception of the final product.
                      • If creating a vanilla protein beverage, it is important to test a wide range of vanilla flavours as they vary from woody, to fruity, to floral, to spicy and there are a wide range of strengths.


                    • Salt is quite important especially when developing a chocolate flavoured beverage. Chocolate beverages without saltiness will not taste like chocolate. Sodium content is an area consumers are paying a lot of attention to and it is important to target not to be less than 400mg per serving. Akzo Nobel’s OneGrain can help replace salt on a 1 to 1 basis, with sodium being reduced by up to 50%.


                    • Always test the dry mix using a variety of mixing options (ie. shaker, spoon, blender, etc.) as a variety of mixing options will provide different results in terms of viscosity, foaming and the solubility of the mixture.


                    • Internal competitive taste test analysis that focus on flavour identification, strength of sweetness, mouthfeel and cleanliness will provide an ideal measurement of consumer acceptance of the product.


                    Do you have additional questions on how to work with plant-based proteins such as Profi™ Complete High Protein Plant-Based Proteins*, Natralein™ Pea or Brown Rice Proteins or Akzo Nobel OneGrain Salt Replacer?

                    Contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant or 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com for additional support and requests for samples.

                    *Profi, Complete High Protein Plant-Based Composite (HPPC), winner of 2016 DUX Ingredients and Technology award and 2x Finalist in 2016 CTAQ Food Innovation Award, Specialty Products Category.

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                    19 Jul 2017

                    Why Shy Away From Soy and Soy Protein?

                      Although, soy and soy protein are often promoted as a healthy choice, there are several reasons why we recommend shying away from soy. Here are our top 5 reasons:

                      1. Soy is an Allergen. According to Health Canada the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), allergy associations and the medical community, soy has been identified as one of the ten priority food allergens. A priority food allergen is a substance identified by the organizations and associations listed above as most frequently associated with food allergies and allergic-type reactions. (1)

                      2. 94% of Soy is Genetically Modified. (2) According to the USDA, the percentage of genetically engineered (GE) soybean in US reached 94% level in 2016. Although, not as high as the US, according to Statistics Canada, 58% of soybeans in Quebec and 61% of soybeans in Ontario were GM in 2014.(3)  In Canada, GM foods do not have to be labeled. However, some food companies have chosen to label their products as “non-GMO”.

                      3. Taste is Unappealing. Taking just a sip or two after mixing a scoop of soy protein powder in a cup of water is all it takes for many people to decide that “it tastes so bad that they can’t get it down.” “The search for a better-tasting soy protein “may be fruitless because the best soy protein powders are designed to deliver the maximum amount of protein and are mass produced to accommodate many palates.”(4)

                      4. Soy is a trypsin inhibitor (5). Trypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme that is produced in the pancreas. Inhibiting protein digestion could lead to digestive distress including feeling gassy, bloated, pain and diarrhea.
                      However, if soy is fermented (ie. natto, tempeh, tamari and miso), it is expected most of the trypsin inhibitors are removed. So, it is better to consume fermented than non-fermented soy for health reasons.

                      5. Soy contains phytates. Phytates are the substance that blocks the absorption of essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc in the intestinal tract. Even if the soy is fermented, it is still unable to break down the phytates. (6)

                      Alternative Sources of Plant-based Proteins
                      Looking for an alternative plant-based proteins that do not contain any soy protein? We have the perfect solution for you! Award-winning Profi Pro, the complete high-protein plant-based composite (HPPC) is non-GMO, gluten-free, 100% vegan, neutral to mild sweet taste, PDCAAS, Halal and Kosher certified. Or if you are looking for a single source, great-tasting protein, Natralein Pea and Brown Rice Proteins are also available.
                      Contact your Dealers Ingredients Sales Consultant or 905 458 7766 or info@dealersingredients.com to learn more and to request a sample.

                      (1)Source: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/food-safety/food-allergies-intolerances/food-allergies.html
                      (2)Source: United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service USDA ERS-Recent Trends in GE Adoption https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us/recent-trends-in-ge-adoption.aspx
                      (3) Source: Article Where in the world GM Crops and Foods, page 20 https://gmoinquiry.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/where-in-the-world-gm-crops-foods.pdf Actual numbers sourced from Statistics Canada. Table 001-0072 – Estimated areas, yield, production of corn for grain and soybeans, using genetically modified seed, Quebec and Ontario, in metric and imperial units, annual, CANSIM (database).
                      (4) Article “Which Brand of Soy Protein Powder is Best Tasting?” by Cassie M. Chew, August 6, 2015 http://www.livestrong.com/article/331321-which-brand-of-soy-protein-powder-is-best-tasting/
                      (5) A Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor Crystallization and X-ray Crystallographic Study by the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol 262, No. 3 Issue of February 10, pp. 1099-,1977. http://www.jbc.org/content/252/3/1099.full.pdf
                      (6) Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for molecular breeding. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B by Lisbeth Bohn, Anne S. Meyer and Soren K. Rasmussen. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2266880/

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